Stage 3: Actual Survey

Sample and Sampling: 

The target respondents are youth (below 30 years) and adults (30 years and above). Participants will be recruited from universities, government departments, non-governmental organizations, and business organizations within the Klang Valley area. The research team will write to organizations (in which members of the team have contact with) for possible participant recruitment. A call for voluntary participation among members of the organizations which had indicated agreement to participate in the survey will be made. When recruiting participants, only those with a Facebook account and/or WhatsApp are eligible to participate. The target sample size is about 600. In the process of recruiting participants, the study will consider getting sufficient number of participants in the youth category (age below than 30 years) and adult category (30 years and above). This will be determined by monitoring the ratio of youth to adult from time to time during the data collection. 

Data collection strategy:

Trained enumerators will be used to administer the questionnaire. Where appropriate, the research team will engage with an individual in the organization in which the survey will be carried out as an enumerator. Training of enumerators involves getting them to have a basic idea of the research and how to administer the questionnaire. They will get a protocol on “how-to administer the questionnaire”. The protocol also includes information on the things they must do to help and ensure participants understand instructions and questions, and that all questions are answered. Upon completion, the enumerator needs to pay each participant and keep a record of payment using the prepared form. The questionnaire will be administered on a one-to-one setting. In situations where it is possible to do it in group, the questionnaire will be administered in a small group setting, but participants will respond the questionnaire independently. 

To ensure a balance distribution of questionnaire containing Stimulus 1 2, an alternate questionnaire distribution strategy will be used. This strategy involves the enumerator alternately giving a different set of questionnaire to the next participant (i.e., questionnaire with Stimulus 1 for first participant, questionnaire with Stimulus 2 for second participant, and back to questionnaire with Stimulus 1 for third participant and so forth). 

The questions in the questionnaire are structured into three sections. In the first section, participants will be asked about their social media news consumption, need for cognition, attitudes towards news sharing/discussion, media locus of control, news consumption motivation, critical consumption and presumption of social media, social media dependency, and subjective norm on reaction to problematic content in the social media. In the second section, participants are instructed to read a news article (either Stimulus 1 or 2). Using a thought-listing technique, the participants are asked to write down all the thoughts that they had while reading the news-related post. Then, they will indicate the extent to which they feel distress, fear, or worry after reading the news-related post. Next, they are asked to indicate their likeliest course of action (reaction to the emotion-elicit provocative news) and the reasonfor their course of action. As a validation check on the stimulus, participants are asked to rate on a 10-point scale the provocativeness of the news the read. The last section contains questions on participants’ demographic information such as age, gender, occupational group, number of friends and groups in Facebook, WhatsApp group and Instagram, number of followers and follow in Twitter, interest in politics, engagement in political discussion, and political party affiliation.   

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